Microbiology: Practical Competence

Infectious diseases in animals are caused by the invasion of tissues by bacteria, especially the epithelium, by microorganisms. This invasion have many effects which can be detrimental to the animals health, let alone be passed on to other animals through physical contact, aerosol, contamination of water or by being transmitted through a parasite such as the common flea.

Prevention by vaccination, good hygiene, quarantine or culling is the best way of reducing and eliminating bacterial infections however it may be necessary to treat the infection with antibiotic and antibacterial drugs. These drugs help alleviate the symptoms together with the use of anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs, rest and good nutrition.

Viruses and bacteria are prokaryotes, simple structures that lacking well-defined nuclei and membrane-bound organelles and their own metabolism (see figure 1 below). They are all obligate parasites on plants or animal cells, hijacking the cells metabolism in order to produce more of the virus that continue to reproduce until the cell ruptures.

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